Thursday, December 20, 2007


Well, it's that time of the year where caloric intake should never be a concern or questioned - EAT and GROW!

On behalf of FUSION I'd like to thank everyone for your support this past year. It's been an honor to get to know many of you and to see how bodybuilding has impacted your life. It truly is the most focused and dynamic sport in the world - you should be proud to be a bodybuilder. I wish you and your families the best of luck in '08 - keep working hard.

AND - may all your Christmas trees be ripped!!!

- Adrian Burke, Co-Prez

Tuesday, December 11, 2007


Aside from developing the reputation as being bodybuilding's strongest supplements, FUSION has been hard a work thinking of how to bring you more added value. The solution has been to give FREE tools and information with every FUSION product. Inside every box of FUSION's products you'll find a fuctional tool to help you achieve you bodybuilding goals. This is what you'll find:

SUB•Q - 50-Page Beyond Ripped Diet and Training Manual

PURPLE•K - Strength Tracking Poster and Pro-Bench Tips

ZEUS - Report on Testosterone and Gym God Program

FUBAR - (is being re-packaged to incorporate some bad ass motivational stickers)

Our focus will always be on making the strongest supplements in bodybuilding, but you deserve more. We want to help you as much as we can to make sure you have every possible tool at your disposal to mazimize you bodybuilding potential.

- Chris Belanger

Monday, November 26, 2007


It kills me that so many guys in the gym tend to stay away from training their legs – they procrastinate. When leg day comes around they make up excuses such as, “bad knees”, “bad back”, or, “I don’t want to bulk up – I am looking for more definition”.

Here’s the truth: a properly executed squat will help you benefit drastically from bad knees since it will help strengthen the muscle around the knee joint and increase the stability. The same goes with having a bad back – when properly executed the squat will strengthen the supportive tissue throughout the back and spine.

For those who say they are not looking to bulk up in the legs and they would prefer to perform leg extensions or legs curls, or use abductor-adductor machines to obtain more definition, forget it. You will only bulk up if you are consuming enough calories to do so.

Some benefits to performing squats are: increased bone density, an increase in core strength, increase in stamina and an increase in lower body strength and stability.

Another good reason that you should perform squats is to increase the anabolic hormone testosterone. Testosterone allows you to build lean muscle, reduce body fat, improve mood, and increase sexual performance. If you are stuck at a plateau on your bench, there’s a good chance hitting some good squats will elevate your testosterone enough to break it.

If you are not sure how to perform a squat properly, speak to a certified personal trainer and have him or her go over the movement. Even if you think you know how to perform a squat, I suggest you have a qualified individual take a second look to make sure you are performing it correctly.

Make sure you have a good warm-up and stretch before performing squats. I prefer to do my cardio at the end of my leg workout, as the increase in oxygen will help eliminate the build-up of lactic acid – the burn. Finally, take the next 10-15 minutes for a good stretch.

So, don’t forget about your squats and remember: procrastination is just like masturbation – it seems like a good thing at the time, but in the end you’re only fucking yourself.

- Chris Belanger

Wednesday, November 14, 2007

VITAMIN C - don't forget about it.

It is commonly known that vitamin C is a powerful nutrient. Mainly due to its ability to prevent colds and keeping you scurvy free. But, it’s lesser known benefits are those that can help you be a better bodybuilder.

Plasma ascorbic acid, vitamin C in your blood, has been shown to have an inverse relationship to degenerative joint pain and osteoarthritis. This is because vitamin C is needed for collagen synthesis and the repair of it. What does this mean to you? It means it can help reduce the pain, or prevent the pain that you get from doing heavy compound movements like squats.

It has also been shown that a person low in vitamin C can have more trouble burning fat. This is because vitamin C is needed for the formation of carnitine, a biological molecule needed for adipolysis, the metabolism of fat tissue. So take your vitamin C supplementation seriously and watch how the addition of it can change your performance.


Evangelou A, et al., Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) effects on withdrawal syndrome of heroin abusers.
In Vivo. 2000 Mar-Apr; 14(2):363-6.

Johnston CS, et al., Marginal vitamin C status is associated with reduced fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in young adults. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006 Aug 31; 3:35.

McAlindon TE, et al., Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis?Arthritis Rheum. 1996 Apr; 39(4): 648-56.

KURT KUHN - Bodybuilding Researcher

Monday, October 29, 2007

My SND Experience.

This past weekend Sport Nutrition Depot and Popeye’s Supplements across Ontario, Canada had their Customer Appreciation Day. I was lucky enough to be in the Waterloo, SND location on Saturday and WOW – the service was great! The last experience that I had of this type of service was when I attended the Mr. Olympia in the adult fun park of Las Vegas. For those of you who have ever attended one of their stylish nightclubs you will know what I am talking about. You walk in and this big-ass doorman greets you with a smile and asks where you would like to sit and even takes your coat – gets the waitress over to you and the drink is in your hands minutes later. Well this is what it felt like walking through the door at Sport Nutrition Depot in Waterloo. The big-ass doorman opened the door, gave me a greeting, and cleared the path through one hell of a line-up that can’t be described, and I took care of my business. A killer experience!

- Chris Belanger -

Monday, October 15, 2007

Reasons and Methods for Improving Grip Strength

There are some very valid reasons why an individual would want to improve grip strength:

1) Boost one’s ego – a bit shallow, yes.

2) Will provide symmetry to a physique, so your biceps and triceps don’t over power the forearms in a pose.

3) Perhaps most importantly, help you lift more weight on certain exercises such as dead lifts and rows, and this can potentially help you achieve insane numbers.

The methods for improving grip strength are numerous, but they all encompass one aspect - don’t neglect your forearms in the gym! Thankfully, a variety of methods are available on how you can train your forearms. You can add hammer curls, which would hit both your forearms and biceps. Or superset reverse wrist curls and wrist curls using a thick barbell. All of this can be done the same day you hit your biceps, or even back. Another method is using a kettle bell, which is an old school version of the dumbbell and always one to do a single exercise with one apparatus. To view some different exercises using a kettle bell and improving grip strength, check out this great article on

Often people ask if it’s all right to use wrist straps in the gym. In my opinion straps should only be used under certain conditions and should not be used for every exercise, or if it neglects your back training. Say you burned out your grip doing a few sets of heavy dead lifts, and your grip is the failing out point. Now would be a good time to use straps – preferably chalk, however, only if your gym allows it.

- Kurt Kuhn

Thursday, October 04, 2007


Hey guys - we just launched the registration page for THE MUSCLE TIMES.


The Muscle Times is our quarterly newsletter, but this isn't about Fusion - it's about you and the bodybuilding culture. What you'll get when you sign-up for The Muscle Times is some great training tips, athlete interviews, current bodybuilding news and the odd rant. I hope you enjoy it and thanks for all your support.

- Adrian Burke

Wednesday, September 12, 2007

NAC Linked to Hypertension

N-Acetyl L-Cysteine (NAC) is an amino acid that has been shown to increase the levels of the antioxidant glutathione. The antioxidant can reduce cell damage, speed recovery from injury and aid muscle growth. The anabolic effect of NAC on muscle tissue makes it a popular supplement for bodybuilders who want to gain lean muscle size and strength.

However, I came across a recent article, which was published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation examining the effects of NAC. The study indicated that the antioxidant properties can form a red blood cell-derived molecule that makes blood vessels think they are not getting enough oxygen. This can lead to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which is a condition characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries carrying blood to the lungs.

I have used N-Acetyl L-Cysteine for a few years now at 1500mg daily and consider it a foundation supplement for antioxidant purposes and will continue its usage. However, the recent article published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation should not be taken lightly and if you have any concerns about taking this supplement to discuss it with your doctor first.

Chris Belanger –

Wednesday, August 29, 2007

Biological Functions of Amino Acids – Part 2

Conditionally Essential Amino Acids Functions


  • Plays a role in cell division, healing of wounds and removal of ammonia from the body
  • Important for immune function and the production of T lymphocytes
  • Integral in protein synthesis
  • Precursor to nitric oxide which has many physiological functions, including vasodilation


  • Provides an antioxidant function by being a pre-cursor to glutathione
  • Source of sulfur
  • Aids in hair growth


  • Potential to be converted to glucose
  • Maintains physiological pH levels of blood
  • Increases the production of human growth hormone


  • Essential for synthesis of nucleic acids, bile acids, ATP and creatine
  • Acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, and increases activity of certain neurotransmitters
  • Stimulates glucagon


  • Strengthens myocardium
  • Precursor for hydroxyproline, which the body uses for tendons and ligaments
  • Important component of collagen, which aids in the maintenance and healing of cartilage and joints


  • Precursor for the neurotransmitters: epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine
  • Can be converted to melanin, which protects against ultraviolet light

Nonessential Amino Acids Functions


  • Vital for the function of the central nervous system
  • Maintains blood glucose levels
  • Can be converted to glucose during intense bouts of exercise
  • Aids in the production of lymphocytes, which is used in immune function


  • Used as a transport of nitrogen in the body
  • Essential function in proteins used in neuronal signaling, neuron development and transmission across synapses


  • Used in gluconeogenesis, the creation of glucose
  • Serves as an excitatory neurotransmitter


  • Most readily available excitatory neurotransmitter
  • Is a precursor for GABA (gamma-aminobutyric-acid)
  • Key role in transamination


  • Used in the metabolism of fats and fatty acids
  • Aids in the production of immunoglobulins and antibodies

Kurt Kuhn -

Monday, August 13, 2007

2007 Candian Nationals

We're all heading to Edmonton to see the Nationals this weekend. It's going to be an awesome event with some great competition - so if you get a chance, be sure to make your way there.

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I'd personally like to wish the best for FUSION athlete Dave Naugler. This guys been working non-stop since his Middleweight win last year. Kick some ass Dave - you're a real bodybuilder - 100% pure dedication.

See you there!

- Adrian Burke

Wednesday, August 08, 2007

Biological Functions of Amino Acids

General Overview of Amino Acids

The most common purpose of protein we know of is for its purpose to help repair damaged muscle tissue after a workout. Protein has other functions, such as: aid in the transport of oxygen to tissues; play a role in immune function, so we don’t get sick; help control our mood. All of these doings are possible by the basic building blocks of protein, amino acids.

There are over twenty different amino acids, each one with a specific function in a physiological system. There are many ways of categorizing them. The most common way of sorting them is into categories: essential, conditionally essential and non-essential amino acids.

Essential amino acids are those that the body cannot synthesize, or it cannot create enough of. So it must be consumed via diet.

Conditionally essential amino acids are amino acids that are not always needed, but in certain individuals they are. Such as: a young and growing individual, or during illness.

Non-essential amino acids are just that. The body can synthesize enough of it to maintain normal function, so it does not need to be consumed through diet.

Essential Amino Acids Functions

  • A precursor of histamine, a compound released by the immune system when an allergic reaction occurs.
  • Needed for the repair and growth of tissues. As well as the maintenance of the myelin sheath that is found in the neuronal cells.
  • Needed for the creation of red and white blood cells. Helps produce gastric juice in the stomach, aiding in digestion.

  • Helps aid in the recovery of muscle tissue after physical stress (i.e. working out).
  • Used in for formation of blood clots.
  • Synthesis of hemoglobin.
  • Has a stimulating effect for muscle metabolism, repair and growth of tissue.
  • It is a BCAA, can be used as energy source in muscle tissue, and doing so prevents the use of muscle glucose.

  • A BCAA that prevents the breakdown of muscle tissue.
  • Maintains and regulates the blood-sugar tissues.
  • Aids in the growth and repair of muscle tissue and bones.

  • Required for the bone development in children.
  • Needed to produce antibodies, hormones, enzymes, and the repair of tissues.
  • Assists in calcium absorption.
  • Maintains a correct nitrogen balance, and maintains a lean body mass.

  • Aids in the breakdown of fats.
  • Acts as an antioxidant.
  • Used in the formation of creatine in the body.

  • Helps elevating mood.
  • Aids in memory and learning.
  • Has been used as an appetite suppressant.

  • Required to maintain a proper balance of protein in the body.
  • Assists in the formation of collagen and elastin in the skin.
  • When combined with aspartic acid it has lipotropic functions.
  • With the aid of methionine assists in immune function by producing antibodies.

  • Required for the biosynthesis of niacin (vitamin B3).
  • Used to produce serotonin, an important neurotransmitter, which is important in sleep.

Kurt Kuhn -

Tuesday, July 31, 2007

WBFF - Get Your Tickets!

So - the entire FUSION crew made the trip to Toronto to see what Mr. Paul Dillett was up to. As a ramp-up to the first ever WBFF Championships being help in September, he hosted the Summer Hot Bod contest at a great venue called C-Lounge. I didn't quite know what to expect, but when I got there the place was rammed. I am talking serious energy and some wicked physiques. The dudes were jacked and the women were sizzling - definetly top-notch athletes. It would appear that the word is out and the WBFF is gonna leave it's mark.

If you get a chance, visit their web site and reserve your tickets - this is going to be a great show

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Adrian Burke -

Monday, July 16, 2007


Many bodybuilders are unaware of how supplemental creatine is made or even where it is derived from – natural sources or synthetic sources. I will shed a little bit of light on this subject.

Naturally, creatine is produced in our body from the combination of 3 amino acids – glycine, arginine and methionine also chemically known as a-methyl-guanidinoacetic acid. Creatine can also be found in animal and fish sources but extracting large enough amounts for commercial use would be very impractical as it would be quite expensive.

This leads to me to discuss how the creatine we supplement with is produced. The creatine that we consume is synthetically produced by the manufacturing of 2 chemicals – sarcosine, which is a sodium salt and derivative of acetic acid, and cyanamide, which is an organic amide not to be confused with the similar sounding poison cyanide. Although these are chemicals, at the end of their reaction process is a product that is perfecting fine for human consumption – creatine. Reacting the chemicals sarcosine with cyanamide in a specific amount of water, inside a glass-lined filled vessel known as a reactor is the only way to make synthetic creatine.

Just for an example of how chemicals can be combined for human consumption let’s take a look at table salt. Sodium is pretty much safe to consume in its raw form but chloride is toxic to humans and will burn the skin. This is why it was used during WWI. Chemistry has allowed sodium and chloride to be combined into a new and harmless compound – common table salt.

The process for synthesizing creatine has been the same for many, many years and has not changed. The only thing that may have changed is the advancement in technology, which has improved the process, is regards to quality of the finished product.

The process to manufacturing creatine happens in 4 stages – reaction phase, cleaning phase, drying phase, and the milling phase. At the end of this process is a pure finished creatine ready to be packaged. Pure finished creatine is usually 88% creatine and 12% water because creatine picks up and bonds to water molecules during the initial reaction process.

This, my friends is how creatine is manufactured or ‘synthesized’. Later on we will discuss the brand of creatine – PURPLE•K and why bodybuilders consider it a staple supplement in their bodybuilding program.

Chris Belanger –

Wednesday, July 04, 2007


When you go to the gym and train, it is a very systematic process, essentially all one does is lift, push, pull the weights. However, it is damn enjoyable. When one is training, there are certain principles one should consider when heading off to the gym or going for a run.

Law of Overload

The principle of overload is perhaps one of the most important and obvious concepts - if one does not push themselves harder (i.e. lifting more weight with proper form, running further) the body has no need to adapt, and thus one will not make any desirable gains in strength and/or endurance.

One can ‘overload’ themselves by adjusting one of the following:

  • Frequency – how often
  • Duration – how long
  • Intensity – how hard

Law of Reversibility

Simply stated, “If you don’t use it, you will lose it”. If you are not training consistently, the body has no need to adapt. So the gains that you have made in the gym will slowly start to relapse.

It is also important to note that one shouldn’t train so frequently that the body goes into a state of over training. Rest is needed for the body to recover.

Some symptoms of over training:

Irritability and moodiness
Altered sleep patterns
Loss of appetite
Loss of motivation or competitive drive
Persistent muscle soreness that does not go away
Fatigue not relieved by rest
Increased incidence of minor illness or injury
Principle of Variety

Doing the same thing over and over again gets boring rather quickly. Incorporating different exercises for each body part will keep your body guessing, and not grow accustomed to the routine you are using. Instead of doing low rep squats; try doing light weight 20 rep squats. Or instead of barbell shrugs, try dumbbell shrugs.

Law of Specificity

The exercise or training that you do will elect a certain and specific response and adaptations. Specific anaerobic exercise stress (i.e. strength-power training) induces specific strength-power adaptations; endurance exercise stress elects a specific aerobic system adaptations. There is only a limited interchange of benefits between strength and cardiovascular training.

So if you have a single goal in mind, train specific for that goal and not something else. If you want big legs don’t go continually training biceps.

Law of Individuality

Everyone is different. Different training routines affect each person in a different way. Some people will respond very well to high reps and light weight exercises, while others will only respond to heavy weight and low rep exercises. So if someone says “You have to try this new routine, it worked wonders for me.” Feel free to try it out, but don’t get disappointed if it doesn’t work out for you.

Kurt Kuhn -

Monday, June 18, 2007

The ATP-PCr System and Creatine

High intensity exercise of short duration (ie.100m dash, 25m or heavy ass squats) requires an immediate energy supply. This comes almost soley on banked stores of intramuscular, high-energy phosphates, phosphagens, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr). Each kilogram of skeletal muscle (the kind of muscle you use when you workout) contains 3 to 8 mmol/l (millimoles/litre) of ATP and 4–5 times more PCr. For a 70kg person, with a muscle mass of 30kg, this represents between 570 to 690 mmol/l of high-energy phosphates. Assuming that 20kg of muscle becomes active during “big-muscle” exercise, sufficient stored phosphagen energy can supply energy for 5-8 seconds of sprint running for 5–8 seconds, or up to 15 seconds of heavy, maximal effort weight lifting.

All sports use the high-energy phosphates, but many depend almost entirely on this means of energy transfer. For example, success in football and the gym requires brief but maximal efforts during the performance. Sustaining exercise beyond a brief period and recovering from all-out effort requires an additional energy source to replenish ATP. If this does not occur, the “fuel” supply diminishes and high-intensity movement comes to a screeching halt. The carbohydrates, fat, and protein found within the cellular fluids and tissue depots remain ready to continually recharge the available pool of high-energy phosphates to sustain muscular activity. However, there are other methods of help maintaining this energy currency. This is where creatine comes into play.

When creatine is consumed it passes through the digestive tract intact and eventually gets shuttled into skeletal muscle. About 40% exists as free creatine; the remainder combines with a phosphate molecule to form PCr.

PCr also shuttles intramuscular high-energy phosphate between the mitochondria and muscle filament cross-bridge sites that initiate muscle action. Maintaining a high ratio of ATP:ADP (adenosine diphosphate) ratio is important for maximum effort activities lasting up to 3-15 seconds. This exercise duration places high demands on ATP re-synthesis that exceed the energy transfer from intracellular macronutrient breakdown.

Generally speaking, creatine has the potential to accomplish the following:

- Accelerate ATP turnover to maintain power output during short-term muscular effort

- Delay PCr depletion

- Diminish dependence on anaerobic glycolysis and decrease resulting lactate formation

- Facilitate muscle relaxation and recovery from repeated bouts of intense, brief effort via faster ATP and PCr resynthesis; rapid recovery allows continued higher level power output

Molecular Structure of PCr
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Molecular Structure of ATP
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Kurt Kuhn -

Tuesday, June 12, 2007


Razberi-K, also known as 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one, is a ketone unique to red raspberry. Raspberries contain many bioactive constituents beneficial for health. One particular constituent, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one appears to have the potential to decrease body fat.

A recent study in Sarasota, Florida of this year adds to existing clinical research in which raspberry ketone has been shown to have anti-obesity effects by altering lipid metabolism, specifically by increasing norepinephrine-induced lipolysis, an effect which may enhance thermogenesis and oxidation of body fat.

The chemical structure of raspberry ketone is similar to that of capsaicin and synephrine. Both of which are well documented for their ability to produce thermogenesis through the release of norepinephrine. However, there are health risks with these two ingredients – synephrine has been shown to have dangerous cardiovascular side effects, while capsaicin has been shown to cause gastrointestinal distress in many users. There are no documented side effects related to raspberry ketone consumption.

This revolutionary ingredient is part of the Beyond Ripped Complex™ found exclusively in SUB•Q.

Wednesday, June 06, 2007


FUSION Bodybuilding, Inc. Announces the Launch of SUB•Q -
The First Subcutaneous Fat-Incinerator:

Guelph, ON – Fusion Bodybuilding, Inc. announces the launch of SUB•Q – the world’s first fat burner designed to target subcutaneous fat. Subcutaneous fat is very hard to lose because it attaches itself just under the skin – hiding lean muscle definition under a layer of persistent white, milky fat. This evolutionary supplement was developed to address the void in availability of any fat burners in the category of subcutaneous fat loss. SUB•Q contains 3 complexes that work via separate mechanisms all targeted toward the incineration of subcutaneous fat.

Adrian Burke, Co-President of Fusion Bodybuilding spoke to the release of their revolutionary new product: “The supplement industry has been bombarded with ‘me-too’ products that do nothing more than boast how great they are – they try to fool everyone with big, flashy claims. It was really important for us to put our customers first and bring functionality and value to the forefront. Fusion has gained a reputation for developing bodybuilding’s strongest supplements because of a decade of dedication in doing exactly that. With this continued dedication in mind we set out to develop the strongest fat-burner ever made and we did it!”

SUB•Q is packaged with a 50-page manual consumers use to achieve their ideal body. This manual comes complete with a 3 phase diet and training program geared towards subcutaneous fat loss. This added value piece is a key feature in bringing functionality and value to our consumers and will resonate in other Fusion products as well. SUB•Q will be released to the public in Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Austria on June 14, 2007.

About Fusion Bodybuilding, Inc.
Fusion's innovative research and development team provides people around the world with bodybuilding’s strongest supplements. Founded in 1998 by Ryan Herniman and Adrian Burke, Fusion today is a top supplement company that pays particular attention to category development and value driven brands. Fusion's targeted marketing program provides businesses of all sizes with measurable results, while enhancing the overall experience for supplement users. Fusion is headquartered in Guelph, Ontario – the hub of nutraceutical development in North America.

Fusion Bodybuilding Media
Jeff Wall

Tuesday, May 29, 2007

The Human Nervous System - PART THREE

The Autonomic Nervous System Divisions

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) houses two major divisions, the parasympathetic and the sympathetic division. At most times, the two divisions are antagonists to each other; if the sympathetic division causes excitation, the parasympathetic division will counter-act with an inhibitory effect. This is not always the situation, however. Because the two divisions may work independently, with some structures innervated by one division, and the two divisions may work synergistically, each contributing to one stage of a complex process. Generally speaking, the parasympathetic division is active in rest states, and the sympathetic division “kicks in” during times of exertion, stress, or emergency.

When you are doing a heavy weight lifting session at the gym your sympathetic division is full effect. It is sending signals to your cardiovascular and respiration center of the pons, leading to increased blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate and depth of respiration, so blood and oxygen delivered to muscles. All of this happens unconsciously; it is and is an involuntary action. During this time also, your digestive system is somewhat inhibited so all of ones energy can be focused at the task at hand. One will also have an increased mental alertness and a state of euphoria. Also, there is a general elevation of muscle tone, so a person looks tense. Finally, the mobilization of energy stores, through an increased breakdown of glycogen in muscle and liver cells and the release of lipids from adipose tissues.

After the workout or cardio session the activity of the sympathetic nervous system decreases and the parasympathetic division comes into play. When you leave the gym and step out into the bright sun (hopefully) the parasympathetic nervous system will cause a constriction of the pupils to inhibit the amount of light entering the eyes. And while on your way back home or wherever, there is secretion of digestive glands, including of hormones that promote nutrient absorption, so the hard worked muscles can recover properly. There is also a constriction of respiratory passageways and reduction in heart rate and force of contraction. All of this aids in you becoming more relaxed.

Like stated, the parasympathetic nervous system focuses on relaxation, food processing and energy absorption. It ahs been called the anabolic system because stimulation leads to a general increase in the nutrient content of th blood.

Kurt Kuhn -

Monday, May 14, 2007

The Human Nervous System - PART TWO

The Central Nervous System - The Spinal Cord

The spinal cord attaches to the brainstem providing a critical pathway for the flow of information from the skin, joints and muscles to the brain, and vice versa.

In cross sections of the spinal cord there is a H-shaped center of gray matter. The ventral (anterior) and dorsal (posterior) horns describes the sections of this core. The spinal cord core contains primarily three types of neurons: motor neurons, sensory neurons, and interneurons. The motor neurons (efferent) run through the ventral horn to supply skeletal muscle. Sensory (afferent) nerve fibers enter the spinal cord from the periphery by way of the dorsal horn. The white matter, containing the ascending and descending nerve tracts, surround the gray matter within the cord.

As previously mentioned, information going towards the brain is sensory information, such as touch, taste and also pain. So if you are working out and pull a muscle or drop a 45 lb plate on your small toe the nerves will travel up to the brain via afferent nerve fibers of the spinal and the information will be integrated there. Here the response will be traveling via afferent nerve fibers to produce a motor response.

Ascending Nerve Tracts

Ascending nerve tracts in the spinal cord send sensory information coming from peripheral receptors to the brain for processing. There are three neurons that typically make up sensory pathway.

1) The dorsal root ganglion contains the cell body of the first neuron whose axon relays information into the spinal cord.
2) The cell body of the second neuron lies within the spinal cord itself; its axon passes up the spinal cord to the thalamus.
3) The thalamus contains the third neuron's cell body. The axon of the third neuron passes up to the central command center of the cerebral cortex

Descending Nerve Tracts

Axons from the brain move downward through the spinal cord along two major pathways. The lateral or pyramidal tract activates the skeletal muscle (the muscles that you primarily use when working out). The second pathway named ventromedial or extrapyramidal tract, controls posture and muscle tone via the brainstem.

Kurt Kuhn -

Tuesday, May 08, 2007

The Human Nervous System - PART ONE

Divisions of the Nervous System

The human nervous system has two major divisions:

1) The Central Nervous System (CNS) which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

2) The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) division that contains nerves that transmit information to and from the CNS.

From there the PNS is divided into the autonomic nervous system (ANS) which controls involuntary information and it conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscle, smooth muscles (ie. digestive system), and glands. The ANS then gets divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system which will be discussed later.

The other partition of the PNS is the somatic nervous system which conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscle.

Both of these divisions play an important role to bodybuilders. It allows us to lift heavy ass weights and digest much needed food.

Breakdown of the Nervous System

The Central Nervous System - The Brain

As previously mentioned the CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is responsible for integrating, processing, and co-ordination sensory input and motor output. It also plays a role of higher functions, such as intelligence, memory, learning and emotion.

The brain is divided into numerous regions which include the brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon and the limbic system.

The Brainstem

The brainstem is made up of the medulla oblongata (medulla for short), pons and midbrain. The medulla oblongata is important for relaying sensory information to the thalamus and to other brainstem centers. Also, it contains major centers concerned with the regulation of autonomic function, such as heart rate, blood pressure and the digestive activity. Which all play an important role in the world of gym, the medulla can increase our heart rate so much needed oxygen gets delivered to the muscle and adjusting of blood pressure so we don't faint.

The pons relays sensory information to the cerebellum and thalamus. Also, it is contains subconscious somatic and autonomic motor center. Any motor movements that we don't think about will be sent here.


The cerebellum functions by complex feedback circuits that monitors and coordinates other areas of the brain and spinal cord that are involved in motor control.. The cerebellum receives motor output signals from the central command in the cortex. This cerebellum, also obtains sensory information from peripheral receptors in muscles, tendons, joins and skin and from visual, auditory, and vestibular end organs. The cerebellum serves as the major comparing, evaluating, and integrating center for postural adjustments, locomotion, maintenance of equilibrium, perceptions of speed of body movement and other diverse reflex functions related to movement. Movements that are first learned by trail and error, like riding a bicycle or proper form of deadlifts or squats, remain coded as coordinated patterns in the cerebellar memory banks. Essentially, this motor control center ?fine tunes? all forms of muscular activity


The diencephalon is made up of the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus provides the switching and relay centers for both sensory and motor pathways. Ascending sensory information from the spinal cord and cranial nerves (other than olfactory nerves) is processed in the thalamus before the information is relayed to the cerebrum or brain stem. The thalamus also plays an important role in regulating a sleep and wakefulness states and also has a role in controlling arousal, the level of awareness and activity.

The hypothalamus which lies inferior to the thalamus in the cerebrum, controls metabolic and body temperature. It also influences activity of the ANS; it receives regulatory input from the thalamus and responds to the effects of diverse hormones.


The telencephalon contains the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex which makes up approximately 40% of the total brain weight. It is divided into four lobes; front, temporal; parietal and occipital. Neurons in the cortex provide specialized sensory motor functions. Deep to each cerebral hemisphere and in close association with the thalamus lie the basal ganglia, which play an important role in control of motor movements.


Kurt Kuhn -

Thursday, May 03, 2007

FAME Tickets Special

20% off FAME tickets!

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This special promotion is running until May 7th - here is your promo code: YUVP8600

All ticket info can be found here:

Friday, April 20, 2007

Bench Press Champion – Barry Antoniow

Almost a year ago I received an e-mail and a phone call from this gentleman in Ottawa who is a Powerlifter and member of Ottawa Strong - the powerhouse, Barry Antoniow.

FUSION decided to award him a supplement sponsorship. Right away he found his best gains using PURPLE•K, ZEUS and FUBAR.

Today I am proud to announce that a few weeks ago at the 2007 CPU Nationals, Barry Antoniow took home the Gold Medal. He kicked ass and won the Canadian National Bench Press Championships.

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I am honoured to have met Barry and look forward to working with him for year’s to come.

For more information on Barry and Ottawa Strong – please visit

Congratulations Barry on another Powerful Lift.

Chris Belanger - VP Sales

Monday, April 09, 2007

Guanidinopropionic Acid and Creatine

Many creatine products on the market right now contain an array of ingredients that theoretically help increase the efficiency of creatine, This can be done by either having creatine easily transported into the cell or a new form of it which will provide you with more energy.

One of these ingredients put into creatine blends is guanidinopropionic acid (GPA). GPA has been added to creatine supplements to help in the aid of insulin function. Generally speaking, the more improved function of insulin, the more energy you will have available and the more anabolic one will be. GPA is a creatine analog. However, GPA can be ergolytic, meaning, it will hinder performance and not increase it.

GPA also has the ability to bind to creatine transporters and block their main function, to allow passage of creatine into the cell. (Brault et al., 2003, Williot et al., 1999) When this happens creatine will not be able to get into various tissues. Thus, a blocked creatine transporter can result in lesser intracellular creatine levels, leading to a decreased performance. The consequences of this will be a diminished contractile force (Eijnde et al., 2004). Along with muscle tissue being affected, GPA also has an influence on brain and heart tissue.

The brain is a very well protected organ, and as in muscle tissue, creatine needs a transporter to gain access to neuronal tissue for it to have a beneficial effect. GPA has been shown to inhibit the creatine transporter, but thankfully the brain has the ability to temporarily recover from the decreases in energy induced by GPA use (Lunardi et al., 2006, O’Groman et al., 1996).

As mentioned previously, GPA can manipulate with heart tissue. Numerous studies showed that intracellular creatine concentrations decreased dramatically, nearly 80%. (Boehm, et al 2003, Horn et al., 2001)

Having both GPA and creatine in the same supplement seems counter-productive. Since GPA has the ability to stop creatine uptake into the cells, which could lead to an overall negative effect. It seems to defeat the purpose of what we are taking creatine for, which is usually to better our performance in the gym.


Boehm E, Chan S, Monfared M, Wallimann T, Clarke K, Neubauer S. Creatine transporter activity and content in the rat heart supplemented by and depleted of creatine. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Feb;284(2):E399-406.

Brault J, Abraham K, Terjung.R, Muscle creatine uptake and creatine transporter expression in response to creatine supplementation and depletion. J Appl Physiol. 2003 Jun;94(6):2173-80

Eijne B, Lebacq J, Ramaekers M, Hespel P. Effect of muscle creatine content manipulation on contractile properties of mouse muscles. Muscle Nerve. 2004 Marl29(3):428-35.

Horn M, Remkes H, Stromer H, Dienesch C, Neubauer S. Chronic phosphocreatine depletion by the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionate is associated with increased mortality and loss of ATP in rats after myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2001 Oct 9;104(15):1844-9.

Lunardi G, Parodi A, Perasso L, Pohvozcheva A, Scarrone S, Adriano E, Florio T, Gandolf C, Cupello A, Burov S, Balestrin M The creatien transporter mediates the uptake of creatine by brain tissue, but not the uptake of two creatine-derived comounds. Neuroscience. 2006 Nov 3l143(4):991-7

O'Gorman E, Beutner G, Wallimann T, Brdiczka D.. Differential effects of creatine depletion on the regulation of enzyme activities and on creatine-stimulated mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, heart, and brain. 1996 Sep 12;1276(2):161-70.

Willott C, Young M. Leighton B, Kemp G, Boehm, E., Radda G., Clarke K., Creatine uptake in isolated soleus muscle: kinetics and dependence on sodium, but not insulin. Acta Physiol Scand. 1999 June;166(2):99-104.

Kurt Kuhn -

Tuesday, April 03, 2007

Thursday, March 22, 2007

Sequence of a Muscle Contraction

Initiation of a Muscle Contraction

1) A contraction is initiated in the central nervous system, which is composed of the brain and brainstem. The contraction can either be voluntary or involuntary. We will only be focusing on voluntary contractions, which involve skeletal muscle

2) A motor neuron in the ventral (front part) of the spinal cord is activated, and a new action potential is then generated, which is passed outward in the ventral root of the spinal cord.

3) As the action potential travels down the motor neuron axon it arrives at the pre-synaptic terminal

4) The action potential causes voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to open. The causes Ca2+ to enter into the pre-synaptic terminal

5) The rise of intracellular Ca2+ triggers synaptic vesicles filled with acetylcholine (ACh) to pass readily through pre-synaptic membrane into the synaptic cleft.

6) The ACh vesicles travel across the synaptic cleft, which is only 50 nm wide. The bind to acetylcholine receptors, namely nicotinic acetylchoine receptors (nAChR), the nAChR are found within the sacrolemma, which is the outer surface of a muscle cells.

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7) An new action potential is then generated and depolarizes the transverse tubules (t-tubules), which lie along the sacrolemma

8) A depolarization of the T-Tubule causes Ca2+ release from the sacroplasmic reticulum (SR)

9) Ca2+ binds to the tropnon-tropomysion complex in the actin filaments. This releases the inhibition that prevented actin from combining with myosin

10) During muscle action, actin combines with myosin-ATP. Action also activates the enzyme myosin ATPase, which then splits ATP. The energy from this reaction produces myosin crossbridge movement and creates tension.

11) ATP binds to the myosin crossbridge; this breaks the actin-myosin bond and allows the crossbridge to dissociate from actin. The filaments then slide past each other and the muscle shortens.

12) Crossbridge activation continues when Ca2+ concentration remains high enough (due to membrane depolarization) to inhibit the troponin-torprmyson system

Contraction Termination

- ACh at the neuromuscular junction is broken down by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and this terminates the stream of action potentials along the muscle fiber surface.

- The SR ceases to release calcium ions, and immediately starts to uptake all the calcium ions that have been released.

- In the absence of calcium ions, a change in the configuration of troponin and tropomyosin then blocks the action of the myosin molecule heads, and contraction ceases.

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- Kurt Kuhn -

Monday, March 19, 2007

***WBFF Launch Party*** - April 4th Fluid Nightclub

I hope everyone in the GTA can make this - it's gonna be wicked!!!

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Launch of Paul Dillett's


Wednesday, March 14, 2007

What are Decanoate Esters?

There have been new products making there way into the market place containing decanoate esters. I have done my own investigation and although the intentions of bonding such ingredients such as creatine and other amino acids with decanoate ester sound quite interesting – is it more effective in terms of delivery and is it safe?

I asked a friend of mine – Androgenic - Shawn D. Wells, MPH, RD and Chief Scientific Officer of MAN Sports Inc. to look into this…

***Androgenic Reviews - The Deca Esters***

Chris/Gym God PM'd discussing the validity/efficacy of the decanoate esters. So I decided to turn it into full-blown review as the ******* products are becoming more visible and even had a booth at the Arnold Classic. Let's start of by using the term "deca ester" sure sounds good to the newbie...much like using Test-, -bol, -drol, -strol, or even the classics like "extreme", "X-treme", "hardcore", "ultra", etc.

Back to decanoate. It is an ester that Test or Deca (hence its name...from the nandralone) can be bound to. With test, I talked to Bill Llewelyn last weekend and he stated Cypionate or Enanthate are the best forms for efficacy.

Most steroids are bound to propionate, enanthate, decanoate, cypionate, etc. These slow down the quick release steroids like test. susp. or winstrol that require more frequent injections. Some other IM injection drugs use these esters such as Haldol (psychoactive) or Prolixin (psychoactive).

Decanoic acid is a carboxylic acid (carboxyl group, polar, forms hydrogen bonds with each other, reacts with bases)...when a salt or ester (organic compound in which an organic group replaces the hydrogen in a hydroxyl group) is made it is then called decanoate. Esters are similar to salts except with a general salt it is a cation (+) and anion (-) union. Esters are present all through nature and most of the smells you know from fruits, plants, etc. are the ester molecules.

Now, the question of Creatine bonded to "deca" or other amino acids has been asked. Since more than half of the molecular weight is in fact the decanoate ester and not the'd have to hope that this form is more than 2x as effective (and that doesn't factor in cost at all...CM can just be dosed higher for pennies). So, is it more effective? Well, the ester makes it lipophilic (use van de Walls forces and basically its means "likes fat"). Therefore, this specific ester has a longer half-life endogenously due to it being attracted to the fatty tissue/adipose.

OK, now you may be thinking it’s a long acting form of arginine, creatine, or tyrosine. Although, this is a point worth discussing - is that even what you desire? The longer acting it is, the more (dramatically more) would be needed to be dosed to ellicit an acute response such as NO type effects. Besides that issue, if long-acting is what you's the kicker...

Decanoate, is meant to be injected. All the data I have presented is as such. It is fully illogical to extrapolate those chemical properties of IM medications and steroids to creatine and amino acids take orally. Further, creatine and amino acids have great absorption rates (depending on the scenario endogenously). Its value is poor, its science is worse. You will have to use more than twice as much to get the same effect as creatine monohydrate or Arginine HCL or Tyrosine HCL alone.

Stupid. You betcha. Wait, it gets better. Besides overpaying for oil cans with half as potent pills there's safety issues.'s the MSDS on decanoic acid a.k.a capric acid (not bonded, but then it does become unbonded internally, breaking apart from the creatine, arginine or tyrosine) I am unsure as to how much of an issue this is. Further, the MSDS is talking about the acid as a liquid. Nonetheless, it lists it as hazardous to skin, eye, inhalation and ingestion. It says it has proven carcinogenic effects? Hmm.

The LD50 (lethal dose for 50% of the tested animal) is 3-4g/kg or 300-400g. That's extrapolated and not converted for metabolic differences. So, huh, again. This would equate to less than 1kg of creatine decanoate.

I've had trouble finding any of the IM esters toxicity/safety data to extrapolate the consumption of the bound salt. Nevertheless, here we stand.

Why would you use this product at all?

It’s rhetorical and deeply sarcastic. Bottom line is don't use this garbage and be offended that these companies continue to try and scam you.

Shawn D. Wells, MPH, RD Chief Scientific Officer - MAN Sports, Inc.

Tuesday, March 13, 2007

In Awe of Dawe

Kerrie Dawe - Team ASN Click Here>

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Chris Belanger - VP Sales

Friday, March 09, 2007

CORTISOL - What Bodybuilders Need to Know!

Background Information

Cortisol, also known as the ""stress hormone"", because of its response to stresses such as: emotional, trauma, infection, surgery, and perhaps the most common to bodybuilders, the stress of physical exertion.

Coritsol is a steroid hormone. It is a four ringed structure like testosterone, but has a far different impact on the body. Coritsol, when released into the bloodstream, reacts throughout the body to control the body’s supply of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It also suppresses the immune system, preparing us to carry on in the face of life’s various stresses.

Coritsol is released by the adrenal cortex, which is located above the kidneys. Parvocellular neurosecertory, cells that are found in the anterior pituitary gland in the brain, control the adrenal cortex and determine whether a stimulus is stressful or not, as defined by the release of cortisol. These neurons lie in the hypothalamus, namely in the periventricular zone of the hypothalamus and release a peptide called corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) into the blood. CRH travels the a short distance into the anterior pituitary, where within a small time frame, it stimulates the release of corticotropin, or adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH). ACTH enters the blood stream where it stimulates cortisol release.

Blood levels of cortisol are, in general, regulated. As mentioned earlier, cortisol is a steroid, whose precursor is cholesterol. Thus, cortisol is lipophilic, or a "fat-loving" molecule, which can easily pass through membranes and readily cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, cortisol interacts with specific receptors that lead to the inhibition of CRH release, ensuring that circulation cortisol levels do not get too high. Interesting enough, neurons with cortisol receptors are found throughout the brain, and not just in the hypothalamus.

Cortisols Effects

Once cortisol is released into the blood stream, it has the potential to decrease amino acid transport into the cell. This decreases anabolism and stimulates protein breakdown, where amino acids are the result, this happens in all cells except the liver. The circulation delivers these freed amino acids to the liver for gluconeogenesis -- the creation of glucose from a non glucose source. Coritsol also serves as an insulin antagonist, by inhibiting glucose uptake and oxidation.

In instances where there are elevated and extended levels of serum cortisol, this can lead to excessive protein breakdown, tissue wasting and negative nitrogen balance. All of which are counter productive to bodybuilders.

Bodybuilders go to the gym to build their muscles, which is named hypertrophy. They must stay in a positive nitrogen balance for muscles to grow. Insulin is also important as it helps drive much needed nutrients into the cell, especially after a workout. There is discussion that two supplements, glutamine and phosphatidylserine are used to produce an anticortisol effect, however, I believe all this comes down to a matter of personal opinion. To keep your cortisol levels low, there are a few choices, two of which are, you could resort to medication or try to stay relatively stress-free. Generally speaking, the less stress there is, the lower your cortisol levels, but keep in mind, there are times when being stress free is difficult, namely after a workout.

- Kurt Kuhn -

Wednesday, February 21, 2007

2007 SABBA Bodybuilding Championships & Bikini Model Search

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HOST HOTEL: Ramada Hotel
1818 Victoria Avenue
Regina, SK
Reservations: 1-306-569-1666
(refer to “2007 Novice Champs group # 9859) for discount rate)
Please book by March 17th, 2007 to guarantee your rate
WEIGH-INS: 6 pm sharp
Friday March 30th, 2007
University Theater, located in the Dr. William Riddell Center
at the University of Regina
3737 Wascana Parkway
Regina, SK

FINALS: 5 pm
Saturday March 31st, 2007
University Theater, located in the Dr. William Riddell Center
at the University of Regina
3737 Wascana Parkway
Regina, SK

Fitness Model Search Competition Information

This is the 1st ever Greene Yak model search which is perfect for the female who has an athletic physique with possibly (but not mandatory) a modeling background that yields a marketable look. This event is a terrific opportunity in many regards to the competitor. The bar has been raised for this event in that this event is being used as a National Qualifier. Aside from the prestige of winning the 1st ever Greene Yak model search, the winner of the model search will be given the opportunity to represent Canada at the Miss Caribbean Tan International Finals Pageant! That’s right, the winner will receive an all expense paid trip (air, hotel, food) to Mexico for a week to represent Canada for the first time ever!

In the model search you will not be required to perform a gymnastic routine. The model search competition will consist of two (2) rounds:

Round One – sports attire round
In the sports attire round, the competitor may wear any type of athletic clothing that compliments your particular body type. Fitness or gym wear, aerobic wear, sports skirts, workout “booty” shorts are all good examples. All attire must be tasteful with respect to decency. Bare foot or sport shoes are acceptable, but heels are not permitted. The competitor will be judged on an on overall athletic appearance that is naturally obtainable.

Round Two – two piece bikini with high heels
In the two piece bikini round, the competitor will be judged on an on overall athletic appearance that is naturally obtainable as in round one. High heel shoe style and two piece bikini style and color is up to the competitor, however absolutely no G-string or thong bottoms will be allowed. It is important to note that the judges will be presented a different “total package” while wearing a two piece bikini with high heels as opposed to the sports attire round and therefore will be judging with a fresh perspective.

General Model Search Rules and Regulations

*Competitors must have filled out and signed the Model Search entry form and paid the entry fee.

*Hair may be styled as desired, as well as jewelry is allowed as long as not excessive.

*No posing oils or lotions are allowed in any round.

*All two piece bikinis and sport attire must be brought to the weigh-ins. If you do not have it with you, you will be allowed 15 minutes to get it. If not brought in this time frame, you can be disqualified from the competition.

*Numbers must be worn on the left hip in all rounds.

*Depending on the number of competitors, the competition format (for both rounds) are as follows: The competitors will line up at the back of the stage and be called out of the lineup one at a time in which they will have approximately 30 seconds to move around the stage walking the “catwalk”. You may stop, do a ¼ turn, ½ turn, and/or strike a pose in a manner that a runway model would, and in a way that suits and compliments you best. Remember to make sure the judges see you.

* Back Stage: Due to the size of the backstage and change rooms, no one will be allowed to accompany you back stage; friends, coaches, etc. There will be help for the competitors back stage. Security will be present.

*Competitors should be at the venue approximately ½ hour before show time to familiarize yourself with the stage and backstage area.

Note: There will be no pump up weights supplied backstage at the venue. If you require any pump up weights, or rubber resistance bands, you may bring them.

Adrian Burke -

Monday, February 19, 2007

(((CONTEST))) ***FUSION Bodybuilding's TRAIN INSANE Face***

The new FUBAR formula is about to launch - about damn time! To get things going we want you to send us a snap shot of your best TRAIN INSANE face. We are going to give FUBAR samples to everyone who enters AND to the 10 best TRAIN INSANE face's we are going to send you a FREE bottle.

Be part of the insanity – click below for contest conditions:

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Remember to TRAIN INSANE…cuz if you aren’t - someone else is!!!

Chris Belanger – VP Sales -

Monday, February 12, 2007



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Molecular Structure of Testosterone

Testosterone (T) – perhaps one of the most important hormones for bodybuilding, or at least, one of the most common hormones in the human body. T is a primary sex hormone in men, and also highly anabolic. It is also found in women, but to a much lesser degree than men, men create, on average, twenty to thirty more times T than women.

Since T is highly anabolic, this means that it plays a role in “building of”, usually tissues in the body, ie. muscle mass. T also plays a role in protein synthesis which helps you repair muscle after an intense workout. Other anabolic effects with T is strength gain, this is fairly obvious, the more muscle mass you have, the heavier you can lift.

T is a steroid hormone, and like all other steroid hormones cholesterol is one of the precursors for its production. Most of the T in men is made in the testes, but also in smaller quantities in the adrenal cortex, which is found on top of the kidneys. In women, most of the T is synthesized in the ovaries.

In addition to its large role on muscle tissue synthesis, T indirectly affects muscle fiber’s protein content by promoting growth hormone release, which leads to insulin growth factor (IGF) synthesis and release from the liver. T also influences neural receptors to increase neurotransmitter release and initiate structural protein changes that alter the size of the neuromuscular junction, the gap between the pre-synapse and the cellular membrane of the muscle cell. These neural effects increase the force-production capabilities of skeletal muscle, thus more strength.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

These two hormones are gonadotropic hormones; a hormone released either from the anterior pituitary gland, which is found in the brain. FSH in males stimulates gernminal epithelium growth in the testes to promote sperm devolvement. LH also stimulates the testes to secrete T.

How exercise affects FSH and LH is still unknown, here are inconsistent reports that describe short-term exercise-association release. However, LH release works like a pulse; it has it peaks and low points, thus making it somewhat difficult to separate any specific exercise related changes from a normal pattern. But generally, LH concentration rises before exercise and peaks during recovery.

Growth Hormone, Exercise, and Tissue Synthesis

Growth hormone is a 191 amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone, which is synthesized, stored and secreted by the cells within the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates growth and cell reproduction.

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Structure of Human Growth Hormone

Short term physical activity stimulates a sharp rise in GH pulse amplitude and the amount of hormone secreted per pulse. More importantly though, exercise stimulates release of GH isoforms with extended half-lifes as compared to normal GH, this will allow for the effects of GH to last longer on target tissues. Some of the most GH release benefits include muscle, bone, and connective tissue growth and remodeling. It also influences the choice of “fuel” during exercise, principally decreasing glucose uptake, increasing free fatty acid mobilization and enhancing liver gluconeogensis (the creation of glycogen). The net metabolic effect on increased exercise-induced GH production preserves plasma glucose concentration for central nervous system and muscle functions. Many of the growth-promoting effects of GH result from actions of an intermediary chemical messenger on different target tissues, rather than direct effect of GH itself. These peptide messengers, produced in the liver, are termed somataodmeials or insulin-like-growth factors because of there similar structure to insulin. These factors exert potent peripheral effects on the motor units of other tissues.

The mechanism on how exercise stimulates GH release to improve protein synthesis, and thus muscle hypertrophy (muscles growing in size), and it’s other effects is unknown. One hypothesis says that exercise directly stimulates GH release, or release of somatomedians from the liver or kidneys, which then in turn stimulates anabolic processes. Exercise also may indirectly affect GH by stimulating the cholinergic pathways to trigger GH release.

Trained and sedentary individual show similar increases in GH concentration when they exercise to exhaustion. In contrast though, the sedentary person maintains higher levels of GH for several hours into recovery. During a standard bout of sub-maximal exercise, sedentary individuals have a greater GH response. Because this absolute sub-maximal exercise level represents greater stress for the less fit person. GH release generally relates more to the relative strenuousness of physical effort.

Insulin-Like Growth Factors (IGF)

IGF’s mediates many of GH’s effects. In response to GH simulation, liver synthesize IGF-1, a 70-amino acid poly peptide and IGF-II (a 67-amino acid polypeptide, the total time for this process that requires 9 – 30 hours. IGF’s travel in the blood attached to one of five types of binding proteins for release as a free hormone to interact with specific receptors. The factors that influence IGF transport include the binding proteins within muscle, nutrition status and plasma insulin levels.

The time required for IGF synthesis to GH stimulation affects any IGF appearance during or immediately following exercise. This suggest that it’s release results from disruption of cells already containing IGF. Also, GH-mediated release of IGF with exercise may reflect a different time course than the typically observed in non-exercise conditions.

Kurt Kuhn -

Thursday, February 01, 2007

Leucine as a Nutritional Signal

Branched-Chain Amino Acids (Leucine, IsoLeucine, and Valine) also known as BCAA’s are the building blocks of the body. They make up 35% of your muscle mass and must be present for molecular growth and development to take place. BCAA's act as nitrogen carriers and assist the muscles in synthesizing other amino acids needed for anabolic muscle action.

Over the next little while I will not be discussing the anabolic effects about the BCAA’s but rather discussing the role of one very important BCAA – Leucine.

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Systematic Name: (S)-2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoic acid

After doing some research I came across an article put together by Susan M. Hutson (Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157) and Robert A. Harris (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5122)

Leucine as a Nutritional Signal

Although the anabolic effects of amino acids originating from dietary protein on protein synthesis and cell function were first reported over 20 year ago, until recently to molecular basis for many of these observations remained elusive. Now there is convincing evidence that amino acids are actually participants in signal transduction pathways, activating in selected cells some of the same signaling cascades as the anabolic hormone insulin.

Activation of signaling pathways is now recognized to be an important non-protein function of amino acids. This can be and often is studied with amino acid mixtures. In most instances, however, the indispensable branch-chain amino acid Leucine can exert the same effects as amino acid mixtures.

Historically, Leucine has always seemed special and more important that the other two branched-chain amino acids, IsoLeucine and Valine. We have long known that Leucine is ketogenic and is specific among the branched-chain amino acids in its ability to stimulate insulin release from the islet cells of the pancreas (Panten et al. 1974).

A paper was put forth, “Regulation of Branched-Chain α-Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Kinase Expression” by Robert A. Harris, reviews the molecular mechanisms by which Leucine catabolism is controlled at the level of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. Evidence is presented for nutrient and hormonal regulation of expression of the branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase. The hypothesis is put forth the involvement of thyroid hormone in the regulation of the expression of this gene.

A second paper has been put forth, “Function of Leucine in Excitory Neurotransmitter Metabolism in the Central Nervous System” by Susan M. Hutson, addresses the role of branched-chain amino acids in metabolism in the central nervous system. The hypothesis is advanced that branched-chain amino acids have an important role as donors of nitrogen for dispensable amino acid biosynthesis, analogous to their role in glutamine and alanine synthesis in skeletal muscle developed in the 1970s (Odessey et al. 1974, Chang and Goldberg 1978, Garber et al. 1976). Evidence that BCAA nitrogen is required for formation of the neurotransmitter glutamate has been reviewed (Yudkoff et al. 1996, Bixel et al. 1997, Hutson et al. 1998) and new findings on the special role of branched-chain amino acids in neurotransmitter metabolism in the central nervous system are present.

1. Chang T. W., Goldberg A. L. The metabolic fates of amino acids and the formation of glutamine in skeletal muscle. J. Biol. Chem. 1978;253:3685-3693

2. Fajans S. S., Knopf R. F., Floyd J. C., Power L., Conn J. W. The experimental induction in man of sensitivity to leucine hypoglycemia. J. Clin. Invest. 1963;42:216-229

3. Hutson S. M., Berkich D. A., Drown P., Xu B., LaNoue K. F. Role of branched-chain aminotransferase isoenzymes and gabapentin in neurotransmitter metabolism. J. Neurochem. 1998;71:863-874

4. Odessey R., Khairallah E. A., Goldberg A. L. Origin and possible significance of alanine production by skeletal muscle. J. Biol. Chem. 1974;250:290-298

5. Panten U., Christians J., Kriegstein E., Von Poser W., Hasselblatt A. Studies on the mechanism of L-leucine-and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid-induced insulin release from perifused isolated pancreatic islets. Diabetologia 1974;10:149-154

6. Yudkoff M., Daikhin Y., Grunstein L., Nissim I., Stern J., Pleasure D., Nissim I. Astrocyte leucine metabolism: significance of branched-chain amino acid transamination. J. Neurochem. 1996;66:378-385

In conclusion to this article I believe that there is substantial evidence that BCAA’s and specifically Leucine may have an important role on weight loss. I will continue do my research on the metabolic effects of this incredible amino acid and keep you posted with the findings.

Chris Belanger – VP Sales

Monday, January 22, 2007

What BODYBUILDING's all about!!!

We received this e-mail and I wanted to share it with you. A real inspiration - un-edited:

"Hello my name is Darrell T Banks born July 11 1967 in Brooklyn New York as a child i always had a muscular built at the age of 12 touch my first weight and never put it down
just loved the feeling of blood flow thru my veins as i feel the splendid feeling of being pumped muscles bellies filling like there got to pop from working out so hard!!!!!!! i join my first gym at the age of 13 paradise gym in jamaica queens new york 1980 i was surrounded be old skool muscle heads so i at a early age i knew the mean of NO PAIN NO GAIN i compete in my 1st bodybuilding show at 15 eastern metropolis got 5th place most people would be happy but for me angry at myself meaning i needed to train harder in the gym by the time i was 17th i was winning all teenage shows then i competed in my first open mens show at 18 yrs old i competed in the middle weight class got 2nd at that time i said to myself maybe i can be really good at bodybuilding after i took time of being qualified for nationals need to be bigger i hooked up with a ifbb pro john terrelli at natural physique gym by the time i was 20 i was 5'5 in the 240's getting ready for 1988 nationals for heavyweight class but my life had a dramatic changed july 27 1988 a auto accident i became partially paralized !!!!!!! my dream of being a ifbb pro was gone without a trace but the iron game taught me to never give up !!!!!!!!!
in 1992 i got the fever for powerlifting. lakeshore facility in birmingham alabama sponsored me i got the chance to travel the world competeing in powerlifting won a few shows in the 81kg 181 lbs weight class but now back to my first love bodybuilding but with a slight different twist wheelchair bodybuilding right now getting ready for my 1st show wheelchair bodybuilding nationals in palm beach fl march 10th. The iron game tought me a few things never give up and to try try try again until you get it right!!!!!!! and the weight won't move until you put forth the effort to move it!!!!!!!! Iron game and Life game run on the same princpals! the love the effort the persude and the trill of accomplishment!!!!!!!!! to all my ironheads and Ms ironheads STAY STRONG !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! AND BELIEVE IN YOURSELF!!! IF YOU DON'T WHO WILL!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! MUCH LOVE

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Now for all the whiners - SHUT UP AND TRAIN!!!

Adrian Burke

Thursday, January 18, 2007

Katie Uter's Fitness Explosion Camp - HOLLA!

3 Weeks Til Katie Uter's Fitness Explosion Camp!

Katie Uter, 2001 Ms. Fitness Universe and 2006 Ms. Bikini Universe, is hosting a fitness training camp in New Orleans, Louisiana, January 26th - 28th. Katie has been competing, coaching, and modeling in the fitness industry for over 10 years. She is now offering a weekend training to teach women the skills they need to enter and succeed in the fitness competition and modeling industry. You won't want to miss this weekend of motivation, education, and fun! Oxygen Magazine will be flying to New Orleans just to cover this event. Katie will also be assisted by several other successful competitors in the competition circuit who will share their expertise as well. There is even a VIP event on Saturday night at Republic in New Orleans for all the ladies attending the camp. There are now girls registered from all over the United States and even one girl coming from Germany for the camp! It is not too late to register! You can find all the details at:

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Adrian Burke

Thursday, January 11, 2007


Well it looks like the marketing department has been working hard. After much dialogue with bodybuilders who use PURPLE-K it has been concluded that the number one reason they continue to buy is: EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH. Props the marketing guys - this advert speaks the truth.

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Chris Belanger - VP Sales

Tuesday, January 02, 2007

FUSION Hoodie Contest - Prove You're a GYM GOD!

We recently ran a contest on We asked people to prove they are a GYM GOD by sending us a video clip and the top 6 entries would win a killer FUSION Hoodie. Thank you to everyone who entered!

These are the 6 winners, in random order:

Atomic Lee - Strong Man Competition

Brotherhood - 265 x 5 Deads

Srombado - 405 Squat

Panic66 - 315 Bench for reps

Mr. Aries - 405 Stiff-Leg Deads

Babolat06 - 450 x 30 Hammer Strength Squats

Chris Belanger - VP Sales